Se o módulo ESP32 já abalou as estruturas da comunidade Maker, imagina uma placa que além do ESP32, tem também um super processador capaz de rodar algoritmos de Inteligência Artificial!

Essa placa é o Maixduino! Ela é baseada no módulo Sipeed MAIX, que usa o poderoso Kendryte K210

Este SoC (System-on-Chip) integra audição e visão de máquina, sendo assim, uma plataforma poderosa para desenvolver produtos de inteligência artificial e IoT. 



O módulo Sipeed MAIX já estava disponível a um custo muito baixo, mas a Maixduino traz todo esse poder para o mundo Arduino, tornando o desenvolvimento de soluções de ponta em IA e IoT, uma realidade para milhares de Makers.


Características:
  • form factor do Arduino Uno 
  • CPU: RISC-V Dual Core 64bit
  • processador de rede neural de 400MHz 
  • identificação de imagem QVGA@60FPS/VGA@30FPS
  • módulo ESP32 onboard - Wifi 2.4G 802.11. b/g/n e Bluetooth 4.2 
  • porta I2S omnidirectional 
  • microfone MEMS 
  • conector para câmera DVP 
  • conector para display LCD 
  • slot de cartão micro-SD 
  • saída DAC+PA amplificada (3W) 
  • USB tipo C 
  • visão de máquina baseada em rede neural convolucional 
  • processador de microfone de alta performance para audição de máquina 
  • suporte nas IDEs: Arduino, MaixPy, OpenMV e PlatformIO 

É muito poder por um preço bem acessível: a partir de US$ 20.90 ! Por esse preço já vem também uma câmera OV2640:
https://www.seeedstudio.com/Sipeed-Maixduino-for-RISC-V-AI-IoT-p-4046.html
Por US$ 23.90 você pode comprar um kit contendo a placa, uma câmera OV2640 e um display TFT de 2.4":
https://www.seeedstudio.com/Sipeed-Maixduino-Kit-for-RISC-V-AI-IoT-p-4047.html

Com essa placa você pode tirar sua aplicação de IA da nuvem, e rodar localmente em um hardware pequeno e barato, tendo assim grande desempenho e privacidade.

Veja esse vídeo do módulo Sipeed MAIX fazendo identificação de face: 
https://youtu.be/BGctumZuhao


Uma nova era está começando para a comunidade Maker, com uma infinidade de possibilidades, descobertas e oportunidades onde o limite é a sua imaginação!



Hoje vamos apresentar um projeto bem simples e interessante: tocar a música tema do filme Vingadores de forma polifônica.

Veja e escute esse circuito funcionando no YouTube:



É muito fácil gerar sons com Arduino utilizando a função tone:

tone(pino, frequencia, duração)

Assim você pode fazer uma série de chamadas para a função, cada uma com uma frequência e duração específica, reproduzindo desta forma uma melodia.

O problema é que com a função tone só conseguimos tocar uma nota por vez, não podendo assim, tocar melodias um pouco mais complexas.

Para resolver isso iremos utilizar a biblioteca Playtune de Len Shustek.
Essa biblioteca permite ler um stream de dados e reproduzir músicas, tocando 3 notas por vez.

Para fazer isso são utilizadas 3 interrupções, cada uma tocando uma nota por vez.

Esse projeto utiliza o Arduino Uno que tem apenas 3 interrupções, mas o Arduino Mega tem 6, podendo assim reproduzir músicas ainda mais complexas.

Você pode baixar a Playtune e ver mais detalhes do seu funcionamento no GitHub:

https://github.com/LenShustek/arduino-playtune

Diagrama Esquemático

O circuito é bem simples: basta ligar 3 resistores de 220 ohms nos pinos 10, 11 e 12, juntar a outra ponta dos terminais e ligar diretamente em um alto-falante.
Cada um dos pinos (10, 11 e 12) estão gerando frequências diferentes e os resistores fazem a "mixagem" destes sinais para tocar no alto-falante.
Você pode ligar um led  em cada uma das portas, indicando assim quando tem um sinal presente naquele canal. Essa ligação é opcional, não interferindo no funcionamento da reprodução do áudio.

Montagem em Breadboard

Esse circuito pode ser facilmente montado em uma breadboard.
É aconselhável o uso de um alto-falante, pois os buzzers normalmente utilizados com Arduino, não conseguem reproduzir a música com um volume adequado.

Você terá um resultado ainda melhor se for uma caixinha do som, mesmo sem amplificação.

Eu utilizei uma caixa de som de um kit multimídia. Ela tem um alto-falante de 4 ohms e não tem amplificação.

Arquivo Fritzing

Segue abaixo o arquivo Fritzing para download:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1gVy0avhG6uasFhVPmANaLVBrEw3i20Wh/view?usp=sharing

Programação

Segue abaixo o código-fonte do programa. Lembre-se de instalar a biblioteca Playtune. Ela pode ser baixada utilizando o link abaixo:


// Plays polyphonic music using 3 interrupts
// Playtune library is required: https://github.com/LenShustek/arduino-playtune
// 2019 - Marcelo Maximiano - Maxblitz.com

#include <Playtune.h>

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0x58,0x90,0x4C,0x0F,0x9D,0x82,0x81,0x80,0xF0};

Playtune p;

void setup() {
  p.tune_initchan(10);
  p.tune_initchan(11);
  p.tune_initchan(12);
}

void loop() {
  p.tune_playscore(avengers); // start
  while (p.tune_playing);     // wait while playing
  p.tune_delay(3000);         // do not use Arduino delay
}






Um Arduino Standalone é uma montagem que reproduz o funcionamento básico de uma placa de prototipagem Arduino, com o mínimo de componentes, tornando-se a base para a montagem de um dispositivo personalizado.

Este workshop mostrará como projetar uma placa Arduino standalone, utilizando o software de CAD Fritzing.

O projeto que iremos desenvolver é um mini-videogame, que nada mais é que um o circuito básico do microcontrolador ATMega328P, um display OLED com conexão SPI e três botões: up, down e fire.

Software CAD

O software de desenho que utilizaremos nesse workshop é o Fritizing:
Segue abaixo o link para download:

http://fritzing.org/download/

Componentes

Não precisamos utilizar todos os componentes presentes em uma placa Arduino padrão. Vamos precisar apenas dos componentes básicos:
  • microcontrolador ATMega328P
  • Cristal de 16 MHz
  • Capacitores para o cristal
  • botão de reset
  • resistor do reset
  • regulador de tensão 5V
  • capacitores para o regulador de tensão
  • diodo contra inversão de polaridade
  • led On
  • led pino 13
  • resistores dos leds


Diagrama Esquemático


Segue abaixo o diagrama esquemático do circuito básico, acrescido com os componentes adicionais, necessários para o projeto:

  • conector para o display OLED
  • conector FDTI para transferência do firmware
  • botões de acionamento do jogo

Lista dos Componentes:

Code Component
U1 ATMega328p (com bootloader)
7805 5V LM7805 - regulador de voltagem
Btn1 Push button
Btn2 Push button
Btn3 Push button
Reset Push button
C1 22pF - capacitor cerâmico
C2 22pF - capacitor cerâmico
C3 100nF - capacitor cerâmico
C4 10µF  - capacitor eletrolítico 16V
C5 10µF  - capacitor eletrolítico 16V
D1 1N4001/1N4007 - diodo retificador
D13 Red 3mm -  LED
On Red 3mm LED
Dc_In Jack
FDTI Header fêmea de 6 pinos
OLED Header fêmea de 7 pinos para display OLED com conexão SPI - pinos gnd, vdd, sck, sda, res, dc, cs
R1 10kΩ Resistor
R2 10kΩ Resistor
R3 4.7kΩ - resistor
R4 10kΩ - resistor
R5 10kΩ - resistor
R6 10kΩ - resistor
XTAL Cristal 16Mhz - perfil baixo


Layout dos Componentes

Esse é o layout dos componentes na placa de 5cm X 5cm:


Layout com Labels

Esse é o layout dos componentes com os labels:


Trilhas

Segue abaixo o desenho das trilhas.
A espessura de trilhas utilizada foi de 12 mil.

Visão com legendas


Visão sem legendas


Visão Final

Essa é a versão final do desenho da placa, já com os labels dos componentes:

Placa confeccionada em casa

A placa abaixo foi feita através do processo de transferência de toner:


   

Placa feita em fábrica profissional

Placas feitas em fábrica profissional na China:


Obs: ao final do workshop, todos os participantes receberão uma placa igual à da foto. Esse lote tem um erro de projeto, que deve ser corrigido na montagem fazendo uma união com solda dos pinos 18 e 19 do AtMega328P (pinos digitais D12 e D13). Veja na foto abaixo:

Montagem final

Placas finalizadas, com todos os componentes soldados:



Arquivo FZZ

Segue abaixo o arquivo Fritzing para download:

https://drive.google.com/open?id=1lpKzc_MukccssmpWJE3O0WECct6zh9Wb


Programação do Jogo

O jogo utilizado foi o SpaceTrash, que é um exemplo que acompanha a biblioteca U8g2.
Faça a instalação da biblioteca utilizando o menu "Incluir biblioteca / Gerenciar bibliotecas":


Abra o exemplo SpaceTrace e faça o upload para o AtMega328P, utilizando o adaptador FDTI:








A família de placas MBZ Arduino aumentou!

A nova integrante é a MBZ Pro Mega RF Edition, que traz como destaque suporte para o módulo de comunicação wireless NRF24L01 da Nordic Semiconductor.


Este módulo é um transceiver (transmissor/receptor) que trabalha na faixa 2.4GHz ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical), e é destinado a projetos de periféricos de computadores, gaming, esporte/fitness, brinquedos e produtos eletrônicos de consumo.

A MBZ RF também tem uma área de prototipagem que permite customizar a placa, incluindo novas funcionalidades através de módulos e componentes.



Disponível para venda no Mercado Livre:


O canal MaxBlitz vai trazer assuntos relacionados ao mundo Maker: tecnologia, eletrônica, Arduino, componentes, módulos, etc.

Se inscreva no canal e ative as notificações para saber quando houver novos vídeos.

https://www.youtube.com/MaxBlitz



No dia 31 de março aconteceu em Cuiabá o Arduino Day Univag 2018. Centenas de pessoas estiveram no Centro Universitário Univag para compartilhar ideias e experiências sobre Arduino e o mundo maker.

O evento organizado pela Univag e pelos canais Arduino BrasilEletrônica Fácil,  contou com a presença de makers de renome como: Rodolpho Oliveira, Nascimento Júnior, Waldyr Reis, Alvaro Viebrantz, Fábio Souza, Gedeane Kenshima e eu Marcelo Maximiano, que recebi com imensa alegria o convite de participar desse evento grandioso.

Eu apresentei uma palestra com o tema "Como transformar um protótipo com Arduino em um produto final" e uma oficina prática "IoT - Comunicação entre Máquinas", que apresento neste artigo.


IOT - Comunicação entre máquinas


O objetivo da oficina era mostrar uma implementação simples de IoT (Internet das Coisas), onde um Arduino comandasse remotamente um motor de passo.
O diagrama abaixo mostra a implementação onde um Arduino envia comandos (definidos por um protocolo simples) via comunicação serial para um ESP8266, esse se conecta a um broker MQTT e publica uma mensagem com esse comando no feed "motor".
O ESP8266 no módulo receptor, faz subscrição do mesmo tópico, e assim que recebe a mensagem, a envia via comunicação serial para o Arduino que comanda através do driver de motor ULN2003, um motor de passo modelo 28BYJ-48. 

Para simplificar o exercício, utilizamos placas MBZ Wifi, pela facilidade de ter o Arduino integrado com o ESP8266. Além disso, no módulo receptor, o ULN2003 foi integrado à placa, ficando assim uma montagem única.
 
Protocolo de Comando do Motor

A mensagem de comando do motor segue um protocolo simples, definido para esse exercício, composto por 5 comandos:

I - Id do usuário
S - velocidade de movimento do motor. Valores válidos: 10-60
R - girar para a direita X graus. Valores válidos: 1-360
L - girar para a esquerda X graus. Valores válidos: 1-360
P - pausa X milisegundos. Valores válidos: 1-2000


Desta forma uma sequencia complexa de movimentos pode ser enviada em uma única transmissão para o módulo receptor, que fará o parsing da mensagem e executará comando a comando a sequencia de movimentos.
Exemplo:

I:3 S:20 R:180 P:500 L:180 S:60 R:360 

ID 3, velocidade 20, gira para a direita 180 graus, pausa por 500ms, gira para a esquerda 180 graus, aumenta a velocidade para 60 e gira para a direita 360 graus.


Criar Feed no serviço IoT

Para poder publicar os dados na nuvem, será necessário criar uma conta e configurar conforme detalhado abaixo:
1) crie uma conta no site iot.adafruit.com 
2) crie um feed com o nome "motor"


Programas 
Seguem abaixo os programas, numerados conforme o diagrama acima:
Lembre-se de instalar a biblioteca "Adafruit MQTT Library"


Módulo Emissor:
1) Arduino: envia o comando para o ESP8266
2) ESP8266: recebe o comando e envia para o MQTT broker

Módulo Receptor:
3) ESP8266: faz subscrição no MQTT broker e envia o comando para o Arduino
4) Arduino: recebe o comando e faz a movimentação do motor de passo

Programa 1 - para rodar no ATMega328P: send_atmega.ino
/*******************************************************************
  MBZ MQTT example (ATMEGA328P)
  -----------------------------
  Este programa envia comandos para girar um motor de passo para
  o módulo ESP8266.
  O ESP8266 recebe os dados e os envia o serviço de IOT da Adafruit 
  via protocolo MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport
********************************************************************/
#include <SoftwareSerial.h>

#define rxPin 2
#define txPin 3
SoftwareSerial EspSerial(rxPin, txPin); // RX, TX

#define PIN_ENABLE_ESP8266 4

void setup() {
  // seta a velocidade das portas seriais
  Serial.begin(19200);
  EspSerial.begin(19200);

  // inicializa o ESP8266
  Serial.println("Inicializando o ESP8266");
  pinMode(PIN_ENABLE_ESP8266, OUTPUT);
  digitalWrite(PIN_ENABLE_ESP8266, LOW);
  delay(200);
  digitalWrite(PIN_ENABLE_ESP8266, HIGH);
  delay(1000);

  String motorCommand = "I:3 S:20 R:180 P:500 L:180 S:60 R:360 ";
  EspSerial.print(motorCommand);
}

void loop() {
}


Programa 2 - para rodar no ESP8266: send_esp.ino 
/*******************************************************************
  MBZ MQTT example (ESP8266)
  -----------------------------
  Este programa recebe os dados uma sequencia de comandos para 
  para girar um motor de passo, e os envia para o serviço 
  IOT da Adafruit via protocolo MQTT
********************************************************************/
#include <ESP8266WiFi.h>
#include "Adafruit_MQTT.h"
#include "Adafruit_MQTT_Client.h"

#define SSID "redewifi"            // id do roteador WIFI
#define PWD  "senha"               // senha do roteador WIFI

#define SERVER "io.adafruit.com"   // servidor MQTT
#define PORT   1883                // porta do servidor
#define USR    "AIO_USER"          // usuário do IO Adafruit
#define KEY    "AIO_KEY"           // chave de acesso do IO Adafruit

WiFiClient client;
Adafruit_MQTT_Client mqtt(&client, SERVER, PORT, USR, KEY);

Adafruit_MQTT_Publish MOTOR = Adafruit_MQTT_Publish(&mqtt, USR "/feeds/motor");  // feed 1: luz

String serialData;

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(19200);

  // Conecta no WIFI
  Serial.println();
  Serial.print("Conectando no WIFI: ");
  Serial.println(SSID);

  WiFi.begin(SSID, PWD);
  while (WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED) {
    delay(500);
    Serial.print(".");
  }
  Serial.println();

  Serial.println("WiFi conectado");
  Serial.print("IP: ");
  Serial.println(WiFi.localIP());
  Serial.println();

}

void loop() {
  if (getSerialData()) {
    if (mqtt.connect() == 0) {
      char buff[100];
      serialData.toCharArray(buff,100);
      // envia dados para o servidor MQTT
      MOTOR.publish(buff);
    }
  }
  serialData = "";
  delay(100);
}

bool getSerialData() {
  bool ret = false;

  if (Serial.available()) {
    // lê porta serial
    serialData = Serial.readString();
  }

  if (!serialData.equals("")) {
    ret = true;
  }

  return ret;
}

int getValue(String str, String tk) {
  String buff = "";
  int p0, p1;

  p0 = str.indexOf(tk);

  if (p0 != -1) {
    p0 = str.indexOf(":", p0) + 1;
    p1 = str.indexOf(";", p0);
    buff = str.substring(p0, p1);
  }

  return buff.toInt();
}

void MQTT_connect() {
  int8_t ret;

  // Stop if already connected.
  if (mqtt.connected()) {
    return;
  }

  Serial.print("Connecting to MQTT... ");

  uint8_t retries = 3;
  while ((ret = mqtt.connect()) != 0) { // connect will return 0 for connected
    Serial.println(mqtt.connectErrorString(ret));
    Serial.println("Retrying MQTT connection in 5 seconds...");
    mqtt.disconnect();
    delay(5000);  // wait 5 seconds
    retries--;
    if (retries == 0) {
      // basically die and wait for WDT to reset me
      while (1);
    }
  }
  Serial.println("MQTT Connected!");
}



Programa 3 - para rodar no ESP8266: rec_esp.ino 
/********************************************************************
  MBZ MQTT example (ESP8266)
  -----------------------------
  Este programa faz a subscrição do feed motor e quando
  recebe a mensagem, a envia para o Arduino
*********************************************************************/
#include <ESP8266WiFi.h>
#include "Adafruit_MQTT.h"
#include "Adafruit_MQTT_Client.h"

#define SSID "redewifi"            // id do roteador WIFI
#define PWD  "senha"               // senha do roteador WIFI

#define SERVER "io.adafruit.com"   // servidor MQTT
#define PORT   1883                // porta do servidor
#define USR    "AIO_USER"          // usuário do IO Adafruit
#define KEY    "AIO_KEY"           // chave de acesso do IO Adafruit

WiFiClient client;
Adafruit_MQTT_Client mqtt(&client, SERVER, PORT, USR, KEY);

Adafruit_MQTT_Subscribe motor = Adafruit_MQTT_Subscribe(&mqtt, USR "/feeds/motor");

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(19200);

  // Conecta no WIFI
  Serial.println();
  Serial.print("Conectando no WIFI: ");
  Serial.println(SSID);

  WiFi.begin(SSID, PWD);
  while (WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED) {
    delay(500);
    Serial.print(".");
  }
  Serial.println();

  Serial.println("WiFi conectado");
  Serial.print("IP: ");
  Serial.println(WiFi.localIP());
  Serial.println();

  // subscreve o feed motor
  mqtt.subscribe(&motor);
}

void loop() {
  // conecta no servidor 
  MQTT_connect();

  // verifica se há dados
  Adafruit_MQTT_Subscribe *subscription;
  while ((subscription = mqtt.readSubscription(5000))) {
    if (subscription == &motor) {
      Serial.print((char *)motor.lastread);
    }
  }
  
  delay(100);
}

void MQTT_connect() {
  int8_t ret;

  // Stop if already connected.
  if (mqtt.connected()) {
    return;
  }

  Serial.print("Connecting to MQTT... ");

  uint8_t retries = 3;
  while ((ret = mqtt.connect()) != 0) { // connect will return 0 for connected
       Serial.println(mqtt.connectErrorString(ret));
       Serial.println("Retrying MQTT connection in 5 seconds...");
       mqtt.disconnect();
       delay(5000);  // wait 5 seconds
       retries--;
       if (retries == 0) {
         // basically die and wait for WDT to reset me
         while (1);
       }
  }
  Serial.println("MQTT Connected!");
}


Programa 4 - para rodar no ATMega328P: rec_atmega.ino 
/*******************************************************************
  MBZ MQTT example (ATMega328P)
  -----------------------------
  Este programa recebe a mensagem do ESP8266 e comanda o motor
********************************************************************/
#include <Stepper.h>
#include <Softwareserial.h>

#define PIN_ENABLE_ESP8266 4

#define rxPin 2
#define txPin 3
SoftwareSerial EspSerial(rxPin, txPin); // RX, TX

const int stepsPerRevolution = 512;

Stepper myStepper(stepsPerRevolution, 8, 10, 9, 11);

void setup()
{
  // seta a velocidade das portas seriais
  Serial.begin(19200);
  EspSerial.begin(19200);

  // inicializa o ESP8266
  Serial.println("Inicializando o ESP8266");
  pinMode(PIN_ENABLE_ESP8266, OUTPUT);
  digitalWrite(PIN_ENABLE_ESP8266, LOW);
  delay(200);
  digitalWrite(PIN_ENABLE_ESP8266, HIGH);
  delay(5000);
}

void loop()
{
  String st = "";

  st = getSerialData(5000);

  if (st != "") {
    Serial.print("Motor Cmd = ");
    Serial.println(st);
    processCmd(st);
  }
}

void processCmd(String cmd) {
  int p = 0;
  int ln = 0;
  int id = 0;
  int p0 = 0;
  int p1 = 0;
  int value = 0;
  String ch = "";
  String buff = "";

  // exemplo
  // I:3 S:30 R:10 S:50 L:30 P:500 S:60 R:180

  cmd.trim();
  cmd.toUpperCase();
  ln = cmd.length();

  while (p < ln) {
    ch = cmd.substring(p, p + 1);
    if ((ch == "I") || (ch == "S") || (ch == "R") || (ch == "L") || (ch == "P")) {
      p0 = cmd.indexOf(":", p) + 1;
      p1 = cmd.indexOf(" ", p0);
      if (p1 == -1) {
        p1 = ln;
      }
      buff = cmd.substring(p0, p1);
      value = buff.toInt();
      p = p1;

      if (ch == "I") {
        id = value;
      }
      
      if (ch == "S") {
        // limita a velocidade: 10 - 60
        if (value < 10) {
          value = 10;
        }
        if (value > 60) {
          value = 60;
        }
        myStepper.setSpeed(value);
      }
      
      if (ch == "R") {
        turnMotor(value, 1);
      }

      if (ch == "L") {
        turnMotor(value, 0);
      }

       if (ch == "P") {
        // limita a pausa: 1 - 2000
        if (value < 1) {
          value = 1;
        }
        if (value > 2000) {
          value = 2000;
        }
        delay(value);
      }     
    }
    p++;
  }
}

void turnMotor(long degrees, int direction) {
  long steps;

  // pega o valor absoluto
  degrees = abs(degrees);

  // converte de graus para passos
  steps = (2048 * degrees) / 360;

  // se a direcao for esquerda, deixa steps negativo
  if (direction == 0)  { // girar para a esquerda
    steps = steps * -1;
  }

  myStepper.step(steps);
}

int getValue(String str, String tk) {
  String buff = "";
  int p0, p1;

  p0 = str.indexOf(tk);

  if (p0 != -1) {
    p0 = str.indexOf(":", p0) + 1;
    p1 = str.indexOf(";", p0);
    buff = str.substring(p0, p1);
  }

  return buff.toInt();
}

String getSerialData(const int timeout)
{
  String strBuffer = "";
  long int time = millis();

  while ( (time + timeout) > millis())
  {
    if (EspSerial.available() > 0)
    {
      strBuffer = EspSerial.readString();
      break;
    }
  }

  return strBuffer;
}